[24] All of this could be replaced, either from French and British factories or from American manpower. They had incurre… Yet again, losses were much the same on each side: 137,000 Allied and 130,000 German casualties up to 6 June. Malgré la réussite de l'offensive du Boug, le commandement allemand s'inquiète des conditions sanitaires. Once that was achieved, it was hoped that the French would seek armistice terms. Ludendorff prévoit de réunir les deux saillants pris lors des précédentes attaques dans le secteur d'Amiens, de l'Aisne et de la Marne. The sector was partly held by four depleted British divisions which were "resting" after their exertions earlier in the year. Despite French and British resistance on the flanks, German troops advanced to the Marne River and Paris seemed a realistic objective. Alors que le 21 mars 1918, une offensive allemande se déclenche en Picardie, relisons les lettres de combattants parues dans Le Figaro entre 1914 et 1916. The main attack was made on the open and flat sector defended by the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps. En mars 1918, le commandement allemand rapatrie les troupes du front oriental et lance une grande offensive à l’Ouest : c’est le retour de la guerre de mouvement. Hazebrouck remained in Allied hands and the Germans occupied a vulnerable salient under fire from three sides. 2 nd Morlancourt. Get the Magazine. Lénine et les Bolcheviques ont toujours condamné la guerre de 1914 comme une guerre impérialiste où les intérêts des peuples sont totalement absents. While Georgette ground to a halt, a new attack on French positions was planned to draw forces further away from the Channel and allow renewed German progress in the north. Stacks Request on-site access. Plusieurs opérations allemandes fure… [21] The Allies reacted by appointing the French General Ferdinand Foch to coordinate all Allied activity in France, and subsequently as commander-in-chief of all Allied forces everywhere. The success of Operation Michael led German infantry to advance too far from its supply bases and railheads. Cela va au-devant d… [10][11], The German army had concentrated many of its best troops into stormtrooper units, trained in infiltration tactics to infiltrate and bypass enemy front line units, leaving these strong points to be "mopped-up" by follow-up troops. Cependant, le barrage ne permet pas d'empêcher les troupes allemandes d'avancer de 8 km le premier jour de leur attaque, connu sous le nom de code opération Gneisenau. Essentially an opportunist, Ludendorff envisaged breaking through the … Comment la reprise de la guerre de mouvement mène-t-elle à la fin du conflit ? Montdidier. They re-took much ground that they had lost in 1916-17 and took some ground that they had not yet controlled. [26], The German attack took place on 27 May, between Soissons and Reims. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines – such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. A bord d'un corsaire allemand. Dans un wagon-restaurant, près de la gare de Rethondes dans l'Oise aménagé en salle de réunion, l'amiral Wemyss, le maréchal Foch et le général Maxime Weygand mettront fin à quatre ans de guerre. It was launched from the Hindenburg Line, in the vicinity of Saint-Quentin, France. As with Michael, losses were roughly equal, approximately 110,000 men wounded or killed, each. ... mars 1918. Une fois que ceci aurait été réalisé, on espérait que les Français chercheraient des conditions d'armistice. L'armée allemande avait subi de lourdes pertes et ne disposait plus d'assez de troupes pour poursuivre l'offensive. La Deuxième Grande Offensive Allemande Du Printemps, 1918. Bruchmüller's tactics were made possible by the vast numbers of heavy guns—with correspondingly plentiful amounts of ammunition for them—which Germany possessed by 1918. Offensive allemande de mars 1918. Signature du traité de paix entre les puissances centrales et la Russie à Brest-Litovsk. Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918. Michael was the main attack, which was intended to break through the Allied lines, outflank the British forces (which held the front from the Somme River to the English Channel) and defeat the British Army. Le manuel numérique max, c’est le complément indispensable du manuel papier ou numérique. 160 pp, Charles-Lavauzelle, 1938. Lénine et ses amis politiques entreprennent immédiatement la réalisation de leurs promesses dont celle sur la paix immédiate. L'assaut allemand débute par un tir de barrage de 4 600 pièces d'artillerie, suivi d'une attaque de sept divisions sur un front de 15 km. L'objectif de leur offensive, du nom de code Blücher-Yorck, est de frapper la 6e armée française du général Duchêne qui regroupe douze divisions dont trois britanniques. In six months, the strength of the German army had fallen from 5.1 million fighting men to 4.2 million. The British abandoned the comparatively worthless territory they had captured at vast cost the previous year around Ypres, freeing several divisions to face the German attackers. The next day, the Germans widened their attack to the north, forcing the defenders of Armentières to withdraw before they were surrounded, and capturing most of the Messines Ridge. Losses were approximately 35,000 Allied and 30,000 German. The 2nd Division was virtually annihilated, losing more than 7,000 men. By Captain Ferlus. German casualties from "Reichsarchiv 1918", Churchill, "The World Crisis, Vol. The offensive would bear on the British Army which the German strategists considered to be exhausted after fighting four bloody and fruitless offensives in the course of 1917 at Arras, Messines, Passchendaele and Cambrai. Durant l’hiver 1917-1918, le général Pétain dota l’Armée française des moyens qui lui assureraient la victoire. Ludendorff had to evacuate most of the Blücher–Yorck salient by 7 August and Hagen was finally cancelled. Although Ludendorff had intended Blücher-Yorck to be a prelude to a decisive offensive (Hagen) to defeat the British forces further north, he made the error of reinforcing merely tactical success by moving reserves from Flanders to the Aisne, whereas Foch and Haig did not overcommit reserves to the Aisne. Les Alliés, en comparaison, ont concentré leurs forces principales sur des objectifs essentiels (les approches de ports de la Manche et la jonction ferroviaire d'Amiens). The Allies concentrated their main forces in the essential areas (the approaches to the Channel Ports and the rail junction of Amiens). 18 cm. [33] The initiative had clearly passed to the Allies, who were shortly to begin the Hundred Days Offensive which ended the war. It was also a line of least resistance as the British and French armies were weak in the sector. At Arras on 28 March, he launched a hastily prepared attack (Operation Mars) against the left wing of the British Third Army, to try to widen the breach in the Allied lines. De fait, ils n'y arriveront pas. L'objectif de Ludendorff est d'empêcher les Français d'envoyer des renforts aux Britanniques qui se trouvent dans le nord de la France, où il prévoit une nouvelle attaque. Le 21 mars 1918, l'Allemagne se lance dans une offensive majeure afin de forcer les défenses franco-britanniques. By 1110, the British line had collapsed. Offensive allemande du printemps 1918 JMO du 132 ème RI – 24 mars 1918. Bien que l'offensive ait un objectif limité, ses premiers succès persuadent le haut commandement allemand de poursuivre vers Paris, qui n'est qu'à 130 km. Metzeral. Certains des soldats inhumés ont été tués en 1914, d'autres au cours de la Bataille de la Somme, cependant, la grande majorité d'entre eux ont été tués au cours de la Bataille du Kaiser, offensive allemande de mars 1918, ou de l'Offensive des Cent-Jours menée par les Alliés à partir du 8 août 1918 [1]. Il est manifeste qu'après Ypres, l'Allemagne veut utiliser les forces libérées par la paix avec la Russie pour un effort suprême plus au sud. Localisation de Carspach sur le front ouest en mars 1918 avec la localisation des offensives allemandes de mars à juillet 1918 (Document M. Landolt, PAIR, d’après Y. Desfossés modifié). Un précieux témoignage qui nous raconte la vie quotidienne des poilus. Français : L'offensive allemande du printemps, mars-juillet 1919 Troisième bataille de l'Aisne. Get the latest book reviews delivered bi-weekly. to describe it as a pyrrhic victory. By 1110, the British line had collapsed. "The March Offensive, 1918. Ludendorff privately conceded that Germany could no longer win a war of attrition, yet he was not ready to give up the German gains in the West and East and was one of the main obstacles to the German government's attempts to reach a settlement with the Western Allies.[7]. Le 9 avril, l'offensive Michael fut arrêtée dans la région de Montdidier. 3 mars : . 22 manuels numériques max avec tous les contenus des manuels Belin Éducation nouveaux programmes de lycée, organisés en base de données, et des milliers de ressources. Although the British had learned the approximate time and location of the offensive, the weight of the attack and of the preliminary bombardment was an unpleasant surprise. Bombardment would always be brief so as to retain surprise. Cependant, la grande offensive alliée qui doit vaincre l'Allemagne n'est pas encore pour tout de suite. From 0440, the fire-waltz pounded 43 miles of British lines – such a vast stretch the Allies were left uncertain where the assault would occur. English: Media relating to the German Spring Offensive of 1918 on the Western Front in Europe, collectively known in German as the Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle). However, under much less pressure from the Germans and occupying good defensive positions protected by the La Bassée Canal, the British 55th Division on the southern flank of the Portuguese were able to hold much of their position throughout the battle. In particular, in the sector held by the British Fifth Army, which they had recently taken over from French units, the defences were incomplete and there were too few troops to hold the complete position in depth. Second battle of Villers-Bretonneux . Les Allemands ont également été incapables de s'approvisionner en fournitures et matériel assez rapidement. Purchase. Sign Up . The Germans were also fortunate in that the morning of the attack was foggy, allowing the stormtroopers leading the attack to penetrate deep into the British positions undetected. La révolution dOctobre 1917 est un succès. Signature des préliminaires de paix de Buftea entre la Roumanie et les puissances centrales, prélude à la paix de Bucarest, signée deux mois plus tard. After an entire year spent in the trenches, the Portuguese were tired and had suffered heavy losses. [9], The constant changing of operational targets once the offensive was underway gave the impression the German command had no coherent strategic goal. Betrachtungen Zur Deutschen Frühjahrsoffensive 1918." Les autres offensives étaient subordonnées à Michael et ont été conçues pour détourner les forces alliées de l'offensive principale sur la Somme. At Compiègne, a sudden French counter-attack on 11 June, by four divisions and 150 tanks (under General Charles Mangin) with no preliminary bombardment, caught the Germans by surprise and halted their advance. Les alliés nomment Foch à la tête des armées franco-britanniques, le 26 mars. Au nord d'Ypres, les Belges tiennent leur front sans désemparer malgré plusieurs assauts allemands. En fin de journée, les Allemands ont avancé d'une quinzaine de kilomètres. Mais la percée ne réussit pas, parce que le général Ludendorff, qui ne subissait pourtant que peu d'opposition sur sa gauche, continua à concentrer ses réserves devant Arras, où la résistance britannique devint de plus en plus forte. The German High Command predicted they would need 200,000 men per month to make good the losses suffered. Any capture of an important strategic objective, such as the Channel ports, or the vital railway junction of Amiens would have occurred more by chance than by design. Novembre 1914-mars 1918 (R. Porte) ... ♘ L'armée française arrive à maturation matérielle et humaine, tactique et stratégique, en 1918, face à une armée allemande au bord de la rupture. In theory, the front line was an "outpost zone" (later renamed the "forward zone"), lightly held by snipers, patrols and machine-gun posts only.

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